This blog is most suitable for you if you are looking to start a banana farm or want to upgrade your current banana farm to a more advanced version.
The banana is the oldest and most popular fruit that has ever existed. It ranks as one of the significant fruits and makes up the second-largest segment of the Indian fruit industry. It is a tasty, nutritious fruit that is simple to digest. It is accessible all year long. Carbohydrates and minerals like calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium, and phosphorus are abundant in bananas. In addition to being ingested as fresh fruit, it can also be processed and taken in the form of chips, powder, flakes, etc. The chopped banana pseudostem is fed to cattle. The leaves can also be used as a platter. Musa cavendish and Musa paradisiaca are the botanical names for bananas, which are members of the Musaceae family.
To start a successful banana plantation, farmers should be aware of all the necessary requirements.
Climatic requirements for banana
Bananas are a tropical crop that needs a warm, humid, and wet climate. The ideal temperature range is between 15ºC – 35ºC with a relative humidity of 75-85%. It cannot withstand dry circumstances and is quite prone to frost. Strong desiccating winds significantly reduce plant growth, fruit yield, and quality.
Banana is a crop that feeds a lot. As a heavy feeder crop, maintaining soil fertility is essential. The finest soils for agriculture are rich, well-drained, fertile, free-working, and have a lot of organic matter. The pH range for soil should be between 6 and 8.
How should bananas be propagated?
Bananas grown for human consumption do not yield seeds that germinate. Therefore, swords and suckers with thin leaves are the most typical means of banana propagation. With at least one good bud, rhizomes from both fruited and non-fruited plants can be successfully employed as propagation material.
Planting method for banana
There are two ways to plant bananas: in pits and in furrows. Planting takes place from February through May, whereas in North India, it takes place in July and August. Except for the summer, it is possible year-round in South India. Planting tall kinds 3×3 m apart and dwarf varieties 2×2 m apart is recommended.
Fertigation for Banana
- Amount of NPK banana needs for per metric tonne of yield:
|Fertiliser||Quantity (per metric tonne of yield)|
- The banana responds well to nutrient treatment. Using fertigation, a 25–30% increase in yield is seen. Additionally, it saves time and labour and ensures that nutrients are distributed evenly.
- Application of water-soluble or liquid fertilisers through drip irrigation (fertigation) is encouraged in order to prevent nutrient loss from conventional fertilisers, such as loss of N through leaching, volatilization, and evaporation and loss of P and K by fixation in the soil.
- Also, farmers tend to use more urea and less phosphorus, and potash should be avoided.
- Desuckering: Desuckering is a crucial step in the production of bananas. This process removes the undesirable suckers that grow close to the plant’s base. It is done by cutting the suckers at ground level.
- Propping: Giving plants the correct support using bamboo is a critical cultural practice. It is carried out to prevent plant collapse brought on by strong winds.
- Wrapping: The bunch is covered to shield the fruits from sunburn, scorching winds, and dust. Additionally, wrapping is done to enhance the fruit’s colour. Fruits turn from a dark to a bright green colour.
Harvesting and Yield
- Dwarf-kind bananas are harvested after 12 to 15 months of planting, and tall varieties are harvested after 15 to 18 months.
- Banana fruits show signs of maturity by being plump and having all of their angles filled in, producing a metallic sound when tapped, losing their top leaves, and changing from a dark green to a light green colour.
- Poovan, a tall variety, produces 15–25 tonnes per hectare, while Dwarf Cavendish produces 25–50 tonnes per hectare.
- Storage – Bananas can be kept for about three weeks at a temperature of just over 550°F and relative humidity between 85 and 95 percent.
Dwarf bananas vs. Tall bananas
Tall and dwarf varieties of bananas differ in some parameters. Some of the parameters are listed below in the following table:
|Practices||Dwarf banana||Tall banana|
|Planting distance||2×2 m apart||3×3 m apart|
|Harvesting time||12 to 15 months||15 to 18 months|
|Yield||15–25 tonnes per hectare||25–50 tonnes per hectare|
How can Fasal help?
- Fasal is an all-inclusive agricultural intelligence system that monitors the soil, climate, humidity, and stage of the banana crop. It enables the farmers to make highly accurate day-to-day decisions about their fields.
- Using sensors, the Fasal system monitors farm factors required for banana cultivation, such as weather, microclimate, and soil conditions. It forecasts pest or disease attacks well in advance. It then recommends the appropriate pesticides that have been certified by CIB&RC.
- The Fasal system alerts farmers about any potential for rain over the following 14 days, allowing them to make better irrigation decisions for the plantation of bananas.
- Every Fasal system has soil moisture sensors that tell farmers when and where irrigation of the land is necessary. Based on precise measurements of the soil moisture, these sensors also assist in determining the appropriate amount of water required for irrigation.
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